Varied photos

Constants

Wave Energy

Wave Height

Wave Speeds

Particle Speed

Angle of Boat Wakes: Diverging
& Transverse Waves

Wave Period, Disappearance of
Transverse Waves

Waves Created by Winds

Citations of the Original Studies

Constants

The **densi****ty** of *fresh* water is 62.29 pounds weight per
cubic foot at 68^{o}F, or 998.2 kilos per cubic meter at 20^{o}C.

The
density of surface *sea* water averages 64.08 pounds weight per cubic foot
or 1,027 kilos per cubic meter. Click to calculate density based
on salinity & temperature.

The
acceleration due to gravity, **g**, is 32.174 feet/second^{2} or
9.80665 meters/second^{2}

Formulas
below are only approximations, and are called the "linear" theory of
waves. More precise formulas require more math, and are covered in the US Army Corps of Engineers manual cited at the bottom.

Force,
Energy, and Power relationships are explained at http://science.howstuffworks.com/fpte.htm

Clear
definitions of pound weight (lbw), poundal (pdl or pl), and pound force (lbf)
are at http://www.unc.edu/~rowlett/units/dictP.html

Conversions
of all units are at http://www.onlineconversion.com/

Wave Energy

**Energy per unit of surface area = g
[density] [wave height] ^{2} / 8** (US Army equation II-1-58.
Sverdrup p.544 gives a similar formula without the density factor. Zabawa p.7-4
and 8-6 gives a similar formula without g, but with density.)

Note this means energy per unit area depends only on
height, not speed or wave length. This is 251 foot-pound-force (or 340 joules)
per square foot for a 1-foot high wave.

**Gasoline energy.** In gas-powered boats, the
wave energy comes from the gasoline. Gasoline has an energy of about
130,000,000 joules per gallon (source 1, 2,
3), so if the engine operates
at 10%
efficiency, each gallon creates 38,000 square feet of
1-foot high wake or 153,000 square feet of 6-inch high waves. A boat going 2 miles per gallon (10,560 ft) would
create wave areas (total of 2 sides) 4' wide and 1' high or 15' wide and
6" high. Boats actually create a range of wave heights, so these areas
give only an indication of the disturbed area. Many boats, which achieve less than 2 miles per gallon, create
wider or higher wakes than that. In any case the disturbance travels outward in
a V behind the boat, and eventually transfers this energy to the shore
(conservation of energy).

Diesel engines derive about 50% more energy per gallon
of fuel than gasoline engines (more energy in the fuel per gallon, & more
efficient operation), so they create about 50% more wake per gallon. The
difficulty in converting this energy or size of wake into erosion is knowing
how much energy (or *power*, see below) it takes to break the bonds
holding soil particles to each other and to the roots of vegetation.

The estimates on this website for erosion per gallon
of gas are based on observed erosion per boat passage and estimated gas
consumption per hour, for various boats and speeds. They give an order of
magnitude and show a range for different conditions.

**Energy per unit of crest width = g
[density] [wave length] [wave height] ^{2} / 8 **(US
Army equation p. II-1-57)

Multiply by crest width to get total energy in that
width of crest (which also gives the right units: m^{2} kg/sec^{2}
)

**Wave
Power. **Arguably the erosive force is related less to the energy, and
more to the *power*, which is work done per unit of time, or work times
velocity. Bradbury points out tides have great energy but little power and less
erosive force than waves (email).

**Mean wave power / unit of crest width / second =**

**g [density] [wave height] ^{2} x [wave speed] **

In
deep water the part in curly brackets is approximately 0.5, so the equation
simplifies to

**Mean wave power in deep water / unit of crest width / second = g
[density] [wave height] ^{2} x [wave speed] **

Again multiply by crest width to get total power in
that width of crest (which also gives the right units: m^{2} kg/sec^{3}
)

**Maryland** summed the
energy from all measurable waves coming from one wake, as these passed the wave
gauge, to find total energy from a wake. The study subtracted wind waves'
energy from total observed wave energy during the arrival of a wake, to have a
pure measure of wake energy (Zabawa p. 7-4). They said they used the following
formula, which omits g, as already noted.

**Total energy in a wake per unit of shore length or wave width =
[density of water] x [sum of squares of wave heights] / 8**

On
p.8-6 they use this same expression for both the average energy per square foot
of surface area, and for total energy in a wake, which is a typographical
error, since total energy is bigger than the average energy per square foot.
They do provide tables showing average and total wave energy, and the total is
9 to 15 times the average (pp.8-8, 8-9). Also, they say specific gravity, not
density, but they give the figure of 62.5 lbs/ft^{3} which is density,
while specific gravity of water is one, which would not add much to the formula.

Wave length is given below as wave period x wave speed (i.e.time between crests).

Speed in deep water is **g [wave period] / 2pi** (see speed section below).
Substituting this speed in the previous line gives

**Wave
length in deep water = g [wave period] ^{2} /2pi.**
Substituting this speed in the formula for energy per unit of crest length
gives

**Wave energy in deep water per unit length of wave crest = g ^{2}
[density] [wave height]^{2} [wave period]^{2} / 16pi **(Bradbury email)

** **

On
the other hand speed in shallow water, where waves erode the shore, is square
root of (g [water depth]) and substituting gives

**Wave energy in shallow water per unit width of wave crest = g ^{1.5
}[density] [wave height]^{2} x [wave period] x [water depth]^{0.5 })/8**

** **

**Energy = [mass of water thrown on shore per unit length of wave
crest] x [wave speed] ^{2} / 2** (Tricker p.90)

On an approximately *vertical* shore like a sea
wall, much of the wave energy may be reflected and not dissipated on the shore.
On a gently *sloping* shore like a beach, most energy is dissipated when
the wave breaks. Long low waves break when depth decreases to 1.1 to 1.5 times
wave height. Short waves break far from shore, because they are barely stable
to begin with (Sverdrup p. 537). On a high friction shore, like a marsh or
thick beds of sea grass reaching the surface, some energy is dissipated as heat
in bending the vegetation, and the wave may attenuate without breaking.

Doctors (p. 32) says for waves of the same height, waves with longer periods are more erosive than shorter periods. If this means an individual long wave is more erosive than an individual short wave, the difference can be attributed to a larger area in the longer wave, and is consistent with the US Army, Sverdrup & Maryland formulas that energy is constant per unit area, for given height, regardless of wave length, period, or speed. If Doctors means 20 minutes of long waves are more erosive than 20 minutes of short waves of the same height, that would conflict with the formula, since the number of square feet arriving on shore in 20 minutes depends only on the wave speed, which depends only on water depth, not wave period.

One can also think of erosion in terms of particle speeds, under that heading below.

Nanson et al. (p.1) say the number of wave impacts
also determines the amount of erosion. It is not clear if this means holding
other factors constant, such as the total energy.

Wave Height

Gadd
(1995 p.49) discusses two types of Froude numbers:

**[depth Froude number] = [boat speed] / [g x water depth] ^{0.5}
**= ratio of
[boat speed] to the [speed of a wave in shallow water]

**[length Froude number] = [boat speed] / [g x boat length] ^{0.5}**

Gadd
(p.53) says wave heights rise with square of boat speed, up to *length*
Froude numbers of 0.5-0.6 and then decrease.

Maryland
(in shallow water) says wave *heights* rise with boat speed, up to *depth*
Froude numbers of 0.7 to 1, then decrease. However total *energy* of all
waves in a wake was more closely related to absolute boat speed than to depth
Froude number.

These
two Froude numbers are both significant; wave height depends on both water
depth and boat length.

Cox also says height &
energy of wakes are related to the ratio of boat weight (called displacement in
boats) to boat length.

Antrim and Winters
describe the relation among wave length, wakes, and resistance for small boats
(hull speed).

http://www.ihpva.org/pipermail/hpv-boats/2001q1/000751.html

** **

When
a boat goes slowly, the bow moves water up, then down (in a bow wave), and in
the natural circle of water particles in waves, the wave rises again partly
back along the hull, and there are easily visible ripples down the side of the boat.
When the boat is slow, the ripples are not large, and the boat does not need
much energy to go forward. As the boat goes faster, it goes forward farther
before the water particles rise again, and they may rise only at the middle of
the boat (wave length = half of boat length) or at the stern (wave length =
boat length). Wave height and resistance increase greatly at this last speed,
when wave length equals boat length (bow is at one crest and stern at another,
called "hull speed"). It takes large energy and creates large wakes
for the boat to go faster through the water. Large boats, even narrow ones, can
go significantly faster through the water only with very powerful engines (like
destroyers).

**Bulbous** bows are designed to move the water aside in a more complex way,
wasting less energy by creating smaller bow waves (and wakes) at a given speed.
The standard explanation is that they create a small bow wave farther forward
than the primary bow wave. This wave from the bulb, at cruising speed, has a trough
near the peak of the primary bow wave, reducing wave height, wave energy, and
fuel used, for a given speed. However the primary bow wave exists because it
contains water which has been pushed out of the way of the boat. Even with the
bulb, water still needs to be pushed out of the way, and a fuller explanation
is needed. One naval architect believes
the bulbous bow rises less, the stern sinks less, so less water is pushed out
of the way. Besides reducing fuel cost and wake damage, another side benefit is
less pitching and a smoother ride. He has pictures here
and here,. Others
say bulbs do not reduce pitching and do not hold the bow down, point to the
extra length of the ship and extra forward buoyancy, allowing a sharper bow.. (Wikipedia says the bulb's
bluntness makes the bow wave start farther forward of the boat, which would
also make the bow wave lower. It says bulbs started with a 1910 warship and
some 1920s passenger liners.). A discussion
says bulbs reduce pitching in catamarans, which already have such low
resistance they do not need the wave-canceling effect. A military
site has a diagram
of the wave-canceling effect. The diagram may be accurate in three
dimensions, though it does not appear to show an accurate addition of the wave
curves in the two-dimensions of the image.

Hydrofoils
and many small boats are designed so that at slightly faster speeds than hull
speed, they slide over the top of the water (called "on plane" or
"planing" because their weight is no longer supported by floating in
water, but by some of the same lift forces in the water as an airplane uses in
air). This takes less energy and makes smaller waves than going at hull speed,
but more than at slow speeds (see the graph of Maryland
data)

Gadd
(p.49) says that slow or long boats (length Froude number less than 0.5), create
small waves in deep water; biggest waves when water is shallow enough relative
to speed, so depth Froude number = 1, or boat speed = wave speed; and then
smaller waves again when the water is yet shallower.

Gadd
(p.49) also says for fast or short boats (where length Froude number __>__
1) depth affects wave size much less.

Gadd
(p.51) says short boats are less affected by depth Froude number, because they
create shorter wave lengths, which are less affected by depth.

Wave
height (with propulsive & erosive energy) also depends on hull shape.
Modern commercial hulls are all designed for low wakes (to save fuel cost)
along with stability. The sharp narrow hulls and round bottoms of racing
shells, canoes and catamarans have the least wakes for the load they carry.
However catamarans create waves with longer periods, which increase erosion, so
the net effect is unknown (Doctors p. 32).

A
review of recent studies, primarily on large ships is available
free: "Final Report and Recommendations to the 24th ITTC,," by
The Resistance Committee, in Proceedings of the 24th ITTC (International Towing
Tank Conference, Edinburgh 2005) - Volume I

**Click ****for Examples of Wave
Speeds, Heights, Lengths, Decay, etc.**

Wave Decay

Maryland's studies
show that maximum wave *height* does decrease with distance from the
boat's path, but *energy* does not.

Doctors shows total calculated wave
*energy* (sum of squares of heights) is constant in the full range where
it was estimated (up to 1,300 feet or 400 meters from the boat's path, bottom
line of graphs on p.30 of his paper).

Doctors points out that wave *height* does not
represent "either the wave energy or the damage-causing ability of a wave
system. The choice about how to characterize wave magnitude is not at all clear
and no-one has yet suggested a satisfactory answer to this question. This point
alone could be the subject of an entire research program" (p.31)

A decrease in wave *height* is not necessarily a decrease
in erosive *energy*, because the largest wave may be transferring its
energy to adjacent waves. Energy is conserved, and is only lost by slight
friction in the water, with the air, and ultimately against the shore. It is
well known that waves from storms in the open ocean travel for thousands of
miles without totally decaying until they reach shore.

**Nanson** et al. (p.12) found that among the
simplified variables which they tried, the best correlation to erosion was
found with the total power of the biggest third of waves in each wake, 93%.
They did not measure correlation with total energy of all waves in a wake. The
correlation of erosion with height of the biggest wave was 73% (not
statistically significant difference from the 93% found with total power of the
biggest third., for their sample size).

It is possible that waves below a certain size do not disturb the internal bonds of shore sediments, so they would not cause erosion. However the water table continues into the ground, so sediments on the water's edge are surrounded by water, and it does not take much energy to disturb them. Garrad & Hey found that 4 of 7 boats tested did stir up sediment when operating at less than 2 mph.

Click if graph not visible

Theory (Stoker p.242) and observations (Cox p. 31) say the
maximum *height* of waves in a wake decreases in proportion to the cube
root of distance from the boat.

**wave height = constant x
distance ^{-0.33}**

For example the height of the largest wave decreases by half when distance increases 8-fold. In the graph here, heights decrease by half when waves go from 20 to 160 feet from the boat. They would drop another half only when they reach 1,280 feet from the boat (1/4 mile).

Cox (p.32) says the decrease in height of the highest wave
may be slightly more pronounced in shallow water (distance^{-0.4}).
Doctors (p.31) calculates theoretical decreases of distance^{-0.5} for
large ferries (60 tons) at high speed (over 25 knots).

Gadd (p.53) says wave heights from high speed boats, at
large distances from the boat, decrease faster (distance^{-0.5} not
distance^{-0.33}), but the number of waves increases proportionate to
distance^{1}, and the waves will aim more at the bank, rather than
along it, with long crests which may set up resonant swaying of any floating
reed mats at the shore (p.49), all of which counteract the reduced wave height
and cause more erosion.

Gadd (p.54) also identifies a deep trough accompanying boats in shallow water, and extending only about a boat length on either side, where the boat displaces water, and this trough can be very erosive. Payne & Hey (p.19) add that there is a slow rise in water in front of a boat. Both the rise and the trough are more pronounced in a small channel, where there is little room for the water to move out of the way.

Das & Johnson, reported in Nanson et
al. (p.3), found that wakes from small fast boats decay faster than wakes from
large boats.

Click for table showing distances off
shore cited by different authorities.

Wave Speeds

Speed
of a wave traveling through water depends on its length (crest to crest,
shorter waves go slower) and/or water depth (waves go slower in shallows). Note
the height of the wave (trough to crest) does not affect wave speed. The
general formula is below (US Army equation II-1-8
& p. II-1-31, and http://www.antrimdesign.com/articles/waves.html).

**[wave speed] ^{2 }= ([wave length]
x g /2pi) x TANH (2pi[water depth] / [wave length]) **

TANH is a hyperbolic tangent, which spreadsheets can
calculate (examples),
but often it drops out:

In
** deep** water, TANH (2pi[water depth] / [wave length]) is nearly
equal to one, so

**[wave speed] ^{ }~ square root of ([wave
length]g /2pi) **in deep water

**[wave speed] ^{ }~ [wave period]g /2pi **in deep water (no square
root), by substituting (period x speed for wave length above, and solving again
for wave speed. Therefore in metric or English units:

**[wave speed] ^{ }~ [wave period] x 1.56
meters/second, **in deep water

**[wave speed] ^{ }~ [wave period] x 5.12
feet/second **in
deep water

In
** shallow** water, TANH (2pi[water depth] / [wave length]) is nearly
equal to 2pi[water depth] / [wave length]. so

**[wave speed] ^{ }~ square root of (g[water
depth]) **in
very shallow water.

Here
"deep water" means depth is more than half the wave length; at that
point the TANH function is .9964, and in deeper water it gets even closer to 1.
Shallow water means depth is less than a 20^{th} of the wave length
(Antrim, US Army table II-1-1. However US Army also
uses the figure 1/25^{th} (items m & n, pages II-1-8 & 9).

When waves reach shallow water at an angle, the end
in shallow water slows down, so waves curve to face shore, which stretches the
wave crest & reduces its height (Sverdrup p. 537)

When waves reach shallow water from directly off
shore, period stays the same, velocity decreases, so wave length decreases.
Wave heights increase. (Sverdrup p. 536)

In a steady state, where waves come from directly
offshore onto a sloped shore, the energy leaving deep water equals the energy
arriving at any particular depth of water, closer to shore, so we can set the
power in deep water equal to the power in shallow water. Since wave period is
constant, and speed is a known function of depth and wave length, the equation
can be solved to see how waves get higher and slower as they reach shallows.

**[deep wave height] ^{2} x [deep
wave speed] **

**[shallow wave height] ^{2} x
[shallow wave speed] **

**Speed of Travel of Wave Energy: Group
Velocity**

Most sources of waves (boats, wind, falling objects)
create a range of waves traveling with different lengths and periods. The waves
of different periods interfere, like musical frequencies where frequencies
interfere and one hears the volume rise and fall. Sometimes waves reinforce
each other; sometimes they cancel out. Therefore one can see a small group of
reinforced larger waves, followed by a flatter area in the water where the
waves cancel out. The energy travels with the group, at half the speed of the
waves themselves. One can see individual waves travel forward through the group
and fade at the front of the group. (Sverdrup p.530, Tricker p.196, 204, Stoker
pp.52-53)

** **

Particle Speed

Each water particle travels in approximately a circular path as the wave goes by: rising, then going forward as the crest passes, dropping, then going backward as the trough passes, to end in nearly the same place as before.

Amplitude, used in the formulas below, is half the wave height, since it is measured from the midpoint, the level of the water if it were ever at rest.

**Maximum horizontal particle speed in any depth water =**

**amplitude x g x [wave period] x COSH****(****2pi****(****amplitude+[water
depth]****) ****/**** [wave length]****)**** ****/ ****(****[wave length] x
COSH****(****2pi[water depth] ****/**** [wave length]****)**** ****)**** (**US Army
p.II-1-31)

**Maximum particle speed in shallow water = amplitude x square
root of **

**Maximum particle speed in shallow water = amplitude x g /
[wave speed]**

**Maximum particle speed in deep water = **

Payne
& Hey (p.17) give this same formula without the "e" term,
explaining that in each wave period, a particle travels the circumference of a
circle whose diameter is wave height, so particle speed is circumference
divided by period. This makes sense, but gives much smaller results than US
Army formula with the "e" term.

If we multiply Tricker's version of the shallow water formula above by the "e" factor which the US Army uses for deep water, Tricker's results closely match results from the more complex US Army calculation for all depths down to a foot of water.

**Maximum particle speed in over
a foot of water = (g x amplitude / wave speed ) x
e ^{(2pi x amplitude / [wave length] )}**

Calculations of all these formulas for a range of depths and wave
lengths are **here** for comparisons. It may
seem strange that bigger wave speeds give smaller particle speeds, but remember
that faster waves have long periods and deeper water, which makes the
relationship more understandable.

Particle speed decreases by half for every 1/9 of wave
length one goes below the water surface (Payne & Hey p.18)

**Angle of Boat Wakes: Diverging &
Transverse Waves**

When
a boat goes at constant speed in a straight line, the diverging V of the wake
forms an angle of 39 degrees from the boat's line of travel, and there are also
transverse waves nearly straight across the line of travel, behind the boat,
which are very slightly curved, to create a pattern like: <<(( (Stoker p.229, Tricker p. 206; Though photo
shows no visible curve)

In shallow water Stoker (p.243) says that the angle is larger when boat speed is less than wave speed, and that the transverse waves disappear when boat speed is greater than wave speed.

**Wave Period, Disappearance of Transverse Waves**

The period is the time taken for one complete wave to pass a point, crest to crest or trough to trough.

**Period x wave speed = wave
length**

Cox says periods
are related to 1/boat length, which seems a typo; larger boats should have
longer period waves.

Gadd (p.51) says
wave length is generally less than 3 x boat length. Since period is
proportional to wave length in shallow water, where wave speed is dependent
only on depth, period is therefore also proportional to boat length.

Gadd (p.50) also
says in deep water the period of transverse waves, keeping pace behind a boat,
is 2pi[boat speed] / g, and their wave length is 2pi[boat speed]^{2} /g

Assuming as above
that the transverse wave length is less than 3 x boat length, Gadd solves for
2pi[boat speed]^{2} /g __<__ 3[boat length] and finds that *length*
Froude number __<__ 0.7 so transverse waves disappear when speeds are
above this *length* Froude number (examples include 7
mph for a 7 foot boat, 14 mph for a 25 foot boat).

Yih (p. 22) says
transverse waves disappear for *depth* Froude numbers over 1 in shallow
water, because the wave speed cannot exceed the square root of g[water depth],
so waves cannot keep up with a boat going faster than that.

**Waves Created by Winds**

**Wave height from wind speed**

Maximum wave height = 0.8 x wind velocity (meters
& m/sec or feet and f/s) (Cornish, quoted by Sverdrup p. 523, Tricker p.
141)

Maximum wave height = 0.44 x wind velocity
(Zimmerman, quoted by Sverdrup p. 523)

Maximum wave height = 0.3 x [wind velocity]^{2 }/
g (Rossby, quoted in Sverdrup p. 523)

Maximum wave height = 0.26 x [wind velocity]^{2 }/
g (based on theory, in Sverdrup p. 523)

Height of waves = 0.026 x [wind velocity]^{2}
(feet & knots) (Scripps, quoted in Tricker p. 141)

Maximum wave height = 0.8 x wind velocity (feet
& mph) (Cornish, quoted by Tricker p. 141)

**Wave height from fetch**

Maximum wave height = 0.333 x square root of **fetch**
(distance wind blows over water, in kilometers, while height is in meters)
(Stevenson, quoted in Sverdrup p. 533)

Height of waves = 1.5 x square root of **fetch**
(in miles, with height in feet) (Stevenson, quoted in Tricker p.140)

**Wave speed from wind speed**

Velocity of highest waves = 0.8 x wind velocity
(Cornish, quoted by Sverdrup p. 523 and Tricker p. 141)

Velocity of highest waves = 2.35 x [wind velocity^{2/3}
(Cornish, quoted by Sverdrup p. 523, who notes this gives waves faster than
wind up to 13.2 m/sec, consistent with trade wind observations)

**Wave length from wave height**

Wave length = 10 x wave height for waves which have
exposed to wind briefly enough that wave speed = 0.4 x wind speed (Sverdrup p. 535)

Wave length = 35 x wave height for waves which have
exposed to wind long enough that wave speed = 1.2 x wind speed (Sverdrup p. 535)

Waves "lose energy and decrease in height,
because they encounter air resistance." However they increase in speed and
period (Sverdrup p. 535)

Jim Antrim,"Wave Action - How and Why Waves
Behave As They Do," 1981 http://www.antrimdesign.com/articles/waves.html

Bernard
**Bauer**, Mark Lorang, and Douglas Sherman, "Estimating
Boat-Wake-Induced Levee Erosion using Sediment Suspension Measurements," July/August
2002, Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering 128(4):152-162

Jason
**Bradbury**, "Lower
Gordon River turbidity monitoring April 2003 – December 2004,"
5 August 2005, Tasmania Department of Primary Industries, Water and
Environment, Resource Management and Conservation Division

Robert.
J.* ***Byrne**, and Gary. L. **Anderson,
Shoreline Erosion in Tidewater Virgini**

Greg
**Cox**, "On
Wave Decay," May 2002, *Australian Naval Architect* 6(2):30-32

J. M. **Dorava**, and G. W. Moore, *Effects
of boatwakes on streambank erosion, Kenai River, Alaska,* 1997,
U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 97-4105, 84 p.

Lawrence
**Doctors**, "Wave Generation of High-Speed
Ships," August 2002, *Australian Naval Architect* 6(3):27-33

Jean **Ellis**, Douglas Sherman, Bernard Bauer,
and Jeffrey Hart, "Assessing the
Impact of an Organic Restoration Structure on Boat Wake Energy," 2002 *Journal
of Coastal Research* special issue 36 pp. 256-265

G. E. **Gadd**, "Boat Wash at Channel
Banks," February 1995 *Journal of the Institution of Water and Environmental Management* (later *Journal of the
Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Managemen*t, now *Water
and Environmental Management*) 9(1):49-54

P.
N. **Garrad** and R. D. Hey, "Boat Traffic, Sediment Resuspension and
Turbidity in a Broadland River," 1987, *Journal of Hydrology*
95:289-297

Gerald
**Nanson**, Axel von Krusenstierna, Edward Bryant, and Martin Renilson,
"Experimental Measurements of River-bank Erosion Caused by Boat-generated
Waves on the Gordon River, Tasmania," 1994 *Regulated Rivers: Research
and Management* 9:1-14

S. J. **Payne** and R. D.
Hey, *River Management to Reduce Bank Erosion, Yare and Bure
River System*, January 1982, Broads Authority, Norwich

J. J. **Stoker**, *Water Waves, The
Mathematical Theory with Applications*, 1957 Interscience, New York

H.
U. **Sverdrup**, Martin Johnson, and Richard Fleming, *The Oceans, their
Physics, Chemistry, and General Biology*, 1942 Prentice-Hall, Englewood
Cliffs, New Jersey

**Tasmania** Parks and Wildlife Service,
Lower
Gordon River Recreation Zone Plan A subsidiary document to the
Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area Management Plan, November 1998,
Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service, A division of the Department of Primary
Industries, Water and Environment, ISBN: 0 7246 6221 9

R.
A. R. **Tricker**, *Bores, Breakers, Waves and Wakes*, 1965 American
Elsevier, New York

**US Army**** **Corps of Engineers (Zeki
Demerbilek & Linwood Vincent), "Water
Wave Mechanics" Part 2, chapter 1 in volume 2 of *Coastal
Engineering Manual*, Coastal & Hydraulics Laboratory, Vicksburg,
Mississippi. Revised **1 June 2006** (version of 30 April 2002 is on
websites in USA,
KwaZulu
Natal, & Thailand
)

John Winters, "Speaking Good Boat, Part II
(Hull Speed and Beyond)" http://www.ihpva.org/pipermail/hpv-boats/2001q1/000751.html

http://www.qcckayaks.com/resources/speakboat2.asp
http://enlightenedkayaks.com/goodboat_two.htm

Chia-Shun
**Yih** and Songping Zhu, "Patterns of Ship Waves," March 1989 *Quarterly
of Applied Mathematics* 47(1):17-33

** **

Chris **Zabawa** & Chris Ostrom, editors, Final Report on
the Role of Boat Wakes in Shore Erosion in Anne Arundel County, MD,
1 December 1980 for Coastal Resources Division, Tidewater Administration, MD
Dept of Natural Resources, Annapolis: